About the Author
Pearl S. Buck was born on June 26, 1892, in Hillsboro, West Virginia. In 1930, she published her first novel, East Wind, West Wind. Her next novel, The Good Earth, earned her a Pulitzer Prize in 1932. In 1938, Buck became the first American female Nobel laureate. Concurrent with her writing career, she started the Pearl S. Buck Foundation, a humanitarian organization. She died on March 6, 1973, in Danby, Vermont.
The Enemy is set at the time of the Second World War. It is a heart-rending portrayal of the conflict between man's head and heart. An American prisoner of war is washed ashore in a dying state and is found at the doorstep of a very eminent Japanese surgeon and scientist, Dr Sadao Hoki. Sadao is torn between his duty as a doctor and as Japanese. His heart is telling him to save the prisoner while his mind is fighting to turn him over to the police. It is, indeed, a difficult choice to decide whether one should allow oneself to be governed by emotion or by reason.
Dr Sadao Hoki and his Traditional Father
Dr Sadao, a famous Japanese surgeon, and an accomplished scientist lived in a house on the Japanese coast. The house was set upon rocks above a narrow beach surrounded by pine trees. As a child, Sadao used to climb these trees. He often visited the South Sea Islands with his father. His father believed that the islands were steppingstones of Japan's future to gain perfection. Sadao's father was a profoundly serious and traditional man. He never joked or played with him but took infinite pains for his son. Sadao's education was his chief concern. He even sent Sadao to America to complete his studies. Sadao's father inculcated in him values of patriotism and national loyalty when the latter was quite young and Sadao had always cherished these great virtues.
The Second World War started, but Sadao was not sent with the troops because he was about to make a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean. Also, the General, who was old, was being treated by Sadao, and he might require an operation anytime.
Sadao met Hana in America, waited for his Father's Consent to Marry Her
Sadao had met Hana in America, but he had waited until he was sure that she was Japanese before deciding to marry her. His father would never have approved of her otherwise. Sadao recalled that his meeting with Hana was an accident. Sadao lived in Professor Harley's house and had almost not gone to the Professor's house that night, where he met Hana, a new student.
After Sadao and Hana had finished their studies, they came home to Japan. The marriage was solemnized in the traditional Japanese way according to his father's wishes. They were a happy couple.
The Prisoner is Washed Ashore
One night, Sadao and Hana were enjoying the view of the sea from their verandah when they saw something black coming out of the mists. It was a man. He staggered a few steps and then the mists hid him again. When they saw him again, he was crawling. Sadao thought that he was a fisherman washed ashore from his boat. The surf beyond the beach was spiked with rocks. The man might be badly hurt.
They found the man wounded. Hana realized that it was a white man. The fellow was young and unconscious. The man was bleeding profusely. Sadao saw that a bullet wound had reopened. Sadao packed the wound with sea moss. The man moaned with pain, but he did not awaken. Sadao wanted to throw the man back into the sea as he had now realized that he was an American prisoner of war.
Hana also agreed. Sadao knew that giving shelter to the enemy would get them in trouble. He was torn between his moral duty as a doctor which urged him to save the dying man and his national duty which required handing him over to the Army as a patriot. Both Hana and Sadao finally decided to take the man home, as he needed urgent medical attention.
The Servants React Bitterly
They decided that they might tell the servants also. They would tell them that they intended to give him over to the police. The man had been starved for a long time and he was light as a fowl. They carried him to Sadao's father's bedroom. The old man had never allowed a foreign object in his room.
The American was very dirty and needed to be washed. Hana said that Yumi, the governess, might wash her. She went to fetch her. When she returned to the kitchen, she found the other two servants frightened at what Sadao had told them.
The servants tried to convince Sadao that he must hand over the enemy to the police. Yumi refused to wash the American and Hana had to wash him herself.
Sadao Saves the Enemy's Life
Sadao was ready to operate. Sadao was completely absorbed in his work. He told Hana that she would need to give anesthetic to the man.
Hana probably had never seen an operation and started vomiting. Sadao was irritable and impatient with his enemy, as he was not able to help Hana in her distress. The man groaned with pain.
Interestingly enough, Hana was able to assist her husband in the operation. Hana noticed deep red scars on the neck of their enemy. She wondered if the war torture stories, she had heard were actually true. She recalled that General Takima was a ruthless man who did not even spare his wife.
Sadao murmured while operating, as was his habit. He called the enemy his 'friend'. Sadao finally succeeded in taking the bullet out. He was sure that the man would live in spite of his sufferings.
The Patient gets Better but the Servants Decide to Leave
Hana took good care of the man. She served him, as the servants refused to enter the room. The man was surprised to see Hana talk in English. Hana told him that she had lived in America for a long time. The enemy revealed his name to Hana. His name was Tom. Sadao was still confused about handing him over to the police.
The servants resented their decision to help the American soldier. Hana told Sadao that the servants could not live in the house if the enemy was still present. The servants thought that the couple liked Americans. Sadao tried to clarify that all Americans were his enemies. They talked about the consequences of harboring an enemy. Hana could hear what they were talking about. On the seventh day, the servants left.
The General's Messenger; Sadao Goes to See the General
On the same day, a messenger in official uniform came to Sadao's house. Hana was so scared that she was unable to speak. She thought that he was there to arrest Sadao. In fact, the messenger had come to inform Sadao that the General needed him. Looking at Hana in utter distress, Sadao decided to get rid of the man.
Sadao told the whole episode to the General. The General knew that Sadao was indispensable to him. He never trusted other Japanese surgeons. The General promised Sadao that nothing would happen to him.
The General then planned to assassinate the enemy. He told Sadao that his private assassins were very competent and would also remove the dead body. Sadao thought that this plan would be the best for his family.
After that meeting, Sadao spent three restless nights waiting for the assassins. But they did not come. Finally, the torture became too much to bear for him. He planned to get rid of the enemy himself.
Sadao Helps the Enemy
Sadao told the escape plan to Tom. He also warned him that he needed to escape as the news of his presence was not hidden anymore. He arranged a boat, food, drinking water and clothing for the young man and also gave him his own flashlight. He told Tom that he should flash the light two times if he needed something, once if everything was fine. He must do this only when the sun dropped over the horizon. He further added that Tom could find many fish to eat but he should eat them raw lest the fire be seen. Even Hana did not know about this plan. Sadao had told Tom to wait for a Korean ship.
Sadao went to the General. Sadao had operated on him and he had survived. The General informed Sadao that he forgot about the prisoner, as he was unwell. He told Sadao not to leak this information to anybody.
Back at home, Sadao remembered his days in America and the Americans he met there. He wondered why he could not kill Tom, his enemy.
Gist of the story
One day Sadao and his wife, Hana, encounterd a strange man on the seashore. He was badly injured. At first, they thought he was a fisherman, but when they went closer, they realized that he was a soldier of the US Navy, a prisoner of war, their enemy.
Sadao and Hana decide to take him home because he needs help. They think of ways to avoid leaking his identity.
The servant when finding out the truth refuses to help him and Hana. Hana, despite not being a doctor, helps Sadao in treating him.
Throughout the whole story, Sadao has no idea why he is helping the man. Hana also agreed because her husband, Sadao, wanted to help the man.
As they treat him, they found scars on his body of torture. It evoked their sympathies with him.
When Sadao was treating him, he forgot that he is the enemy. He used to address him as a patient. He used to check him from time to time.
Hana also took good care of the man by providing him with food. However, the man thinks that they would hand him over to the government.
At last, the servants also left Sadao and Hana because of the man. Hana was confused about why she and Sadao are not like other Japanese people.
One day, the General called Sadao as he got sick. Sadao told him about the injured man at his place and the General said that he will send his men to take the men and nobody would get to know about the incident.
However, the General forgot his words and never sent any men. Sadao waited for days in terror but at last, he decided to send the man away on a boat.
When Sadao met General again, he told him everything about the man’s escape. He realized that he was so busy with himself that he forgot that the nation’s enemy was in Sadao’s place. However, he covered his mistake by telling him that he will reward Sadao.
In the end, Sadao was still confused about why he helped him and could not kill the man.
Question 1: Who was Dr Sadao? Where was his house?
Answer: Dr. Sadao was a famous surgeon and scientist of Japan. He was a sympathetic man who remained loyal to his profession even in adverse situations. He lived in his ancestral square stone house in Japan, which was built upon rocks, above a narrow beach, on the Japanese coast.
Question 2: It is the time of the World War. An American prisoner of war is washed ashore in a dying state and is found at the doorstep of a Japanese doctor. Should he save him as a doctor or hand him over to the army as a patriot?
Answer: Humanity and love are the only saving grace in this materialistic world governed by hatred and chaos. Our lives should be centered on harbouring these feelings in ourselves and in those around us.
Keeping this in mind, if a doctor gets an opportunity to save a distressed and wounded person, he should definitely help him. People consider doctors next to God. Even their profession asks them to help all patients, regardless of caste, race, religion, or nationality. Thus, keeping humanity superior to anything else in life, the war prisoner should definitely be saved.
(The above answer is only a sample provided for students’ reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.)
Question 3: Will Dr Sadao be arrested on the charge of harbouring an enemy?
Answer: Dr Sadao, on humanitarian grounds as well as considering it his professional duty, tended a wounded war prisoner which was officially a serious crime. However, he did not get punished for this offence as it was never revealed to anyone, except his wife, loyal but timid servants, and a General who was too self-obsessed with his own treatment that he would never let the doctor leave him.
Question 4: Will Hana help the wounded man and wash him herself?
Answer: The wounded American was in a very bad state and needed to be washed before being operated on. Hana did not want Dr Sadao to clean the dirty and unconscious prisoner, and so asked their servant, Yumi, to do so. However, Yumi defied her master’s order and opted out of it. As a result, Hana had no other option but to wash him herself. Although this act was impulsive and dipped in a sense of superiority over her servant, Yumi, she did it with sincerity.
Question 5: What will Dr Sadao and his wife do with the man?
Answer: Dr Sadao and Hana found an unconscious wounded war prisoner who posed a huge threat to their own safety. However, Dr Sadao decided to go with his gut feeling and operate on him. He saved his life even though it was for the time being. Though half-heartedly, both took good care of the patient’s health and other needs. Hana even washed and fed him with her own hands. Although they knew that they would have to hand him over to the army sooner or later, they did their best to help the injured man.
Question 6: Will Dr Sadao be arrested on the charge of harbouring an enemy?
Answer: Dr Sadao, on humanitarian grounds as well as professional grounds, tended a wounded war prisoner which was officially a serious crime. However, he did not get punished for this offence as it was never revealed to anyone, except his wife, loyal but timid servants, and a General who was too self-obsessed with his own treatment that he would never let the doctor leave him.
Question 7: What will Dr Sadao do to get rid of the man?
Answer: With the injured American’s health gradually improving, Dr Sadao and Hana were in a fix as to what should be done with him. Their loyal servants had left them and keeping him in their house could pose a threat to their lives. As Hana’s impatience and distress grew, Dr Sadao revealed the matter to the General who decided to send assassins to kill the young American in his sleep. Keen on getting rid of the escaped war prisoner, Dr Sadao agreed. However, the matter could not be resolved because the assassins never came.
Dr Sadao then planned another way to get rid of him which was overpowered with sympathy and a distant gratitude towards the people he had been linked to in America. He decided to save his patient one more time. He secretly sent him to an isolated island with food, bottled water, clothes, blanket, and his own flashlight on a boat from where he boarded a Korean ship to freedom and safety.
Question 8: There are moments in life when we have to make hard choices between our roles as private individuals and as citizens with a sense of national loyalty. Discuss with reference to the story you have just read.
Answer: Life has many facets. We live it by maintaining a delicate balance between the various facets it offers to us as part of our existence as an individual in a society. Living for our own self, family, profession, and country are just a few of them. However, at times, it becomes difficult to maintain this balance, and gets overpowered by confusion and dilemmas.
The story about Dr Sadao, Hana and the war prisoner exemplifies this. On finding a wounded war prisoner washed ashore, Dr Sadao and Hana are unable to decide what to do. They are confused whether they should save and tend the injured or leave him to die or inform the army.
Eventually, Dr Sadao strikes a balance by deciding to save him before handing him over to the army. He and his wife sympathetically tend him but the pressure, of secretly hiding a war prisoner in their home and going against the rule of the law, subdue their sympathetic self. In a bid to get rid of this burden, Dr Sadao reveals it to the General who promises to get the prisoner killed through assassins. But Dr Sadao’s humane side again pops up asking him to ply with the voice of his soul, and he goes out of his way to help the enemy soldier flee to safety.
Question 9: Dr Sadao was compelled by duty as a doctor to help the enemy soldier. What made Hana, his wife, sympathetic to him in the face of open defiance from the domestic staff?
Answer: Dr Sadao and Hana knew that their decision to save the enemy soldier would be questioned by everyone. However, they firmly followed their sense of duty. For Dr Sadao, this sense of duty came from the profession he was in; but for Hana, the duty was purely humanitarian. From bearing the unrest in her domestic staff to being forced to do all the chores of household herself, she does all with grace and dignity. Hana’s loving, considerate and sympathetic nature shines out. She washed and fed the soldier although it was not her job. Her care helped recuperate the soldier fast. It is also apparent from the story that she respected her husband, and as a sense of duty towards him, did the needful. This explains why she, even after feeling sick, comes back to the room and readily does whatever is told by her husband during the operation.
Question 10: How would you explain the reluctance of the soldier to leave the shelter of the doctor’s home even when he knew he could not stay there without risk to the doctor and himself?
Answer: When the American war prisoner came to consciousness and realized that he was saved by a Japanese family, he feared that he will be soon handed over to the army. However, as he noticed the amount of concern and care given to him by the family, he understood that he was in safe hands. He knew that although he was a threat to the doctor’s family, his own life might be saved there. Burdened with gratitude towards the family, he ultimately decides to comply with what the doctor planned for him – the escape.
Question 11: What explains the attitude of the General in the matter of the enemy soldier? Was it human consideration, lack of national loyalty, dereliction of duty or simply self-absorption?
Answer: The General was totally governed by self-absorption. He was a patient of Dr Sadao and did not trust anyone except him when it came to his health. He could not take the risk of living unprotected if the doctor were executed for treachery. He had personal assassins whom he promised to use for killing the injured soldier. But ironically, he forgot his promise to help the doctor. Human consideration was not his cup of tea.
Question 12: While hatred against a member of the enemy race is justifiable, especially during war time, what makes a human being rise above narrow prejudices?
Answer: News of war is fast becoming a way of life. The moment one picks up a newspaper, one is bombarded with news of wars between different countries, directly or indirectly. It is obvious that the countries at war are enemies and hatred is a part of this enmity. However, the success of humanity comes when we rise above this enmity and show our love towards the civilization as a whole. Dr Sadao did the same. He did whatever he could to save the life of a man whom he knew was a war prisoner. The instant he saw the injured man, he was filled with concern. Ignoring the fact that he was the enemy of his country and must have killed so many Japanese and may kill even more, if alive, he saved him.
Question 13: Do you think the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the circumstances?
Answer: The doctor tried his best to save the injured soldier as a part of his duty. But the ultimate question was what to do next. It cannot be said that he betrayed his country as he told the truth to the General. However, when he noticed that the soldier was to be killed not for the benefit of the country but only to save the doctor’s life, he decided to help him flee. In such a situation, the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one.
Question 14: Does the story remind you of “Birth” by A. J. Cronin that you read in Snapshots last year? What are the similarities?
Answer: The story definitely reminds one of “Birth” by A. J. Cronin. There is a striking similarity between both the stories. Both revolve around doctors who try their level best to save the lives of nearly dead human beings. In the story “Birth” Dr Andrew saves the life of an almost still born baby boy with lot of effort, while “The Enemy” deals with the story of Dr Sadao who saves an American soldier from the enemy troops during the times of war. Both the stories deal with humanity, love, affection, selflessness, and a strong sense of duty.
Question 15: Is there any film you have seen or novel you have read with a similar theme?
Answer: The story “The Enemy” is built on the pillars of selflessness, sense of duty, kindness, and generosity. There have been many films and novels based on this theme. One such example is the film “My Name is Khan”, where the protagonist, with a sense of duty and generosity, goes to the flooded Georgia to save the lives of his friends, Mama Jenny, Joel, and other natives. He selflessly works to save the town without thinking twice about the possible dangers to his own life.
(The above answer is only a sample provided for students’ reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.)
Short Questions and Answers
Question 1. How nearly had Dr. Sadao missed marrying Hana?
Answer: Dr. Sadao met Hana at a party at Professor Harley’s house in America. The Professor and his wife had invited their foreign students home. Students used to get bored there. Dr. Sadao was not in a mood to go to the Professor’s house that night because the rooms were very small, and the food was very bad. Moreover, Professor’s wife was voluble. But he went and there he met Hana. Had he not gone to the Professor’s house that night, he would have missed meeting and finally marrying Hana.
Question 2. Did Hana think that the Japanese tortured their prisoners of war? Why?
Answer: Hana had heard rumours that the Japanese tortured the prisoners of war. She also remembered that people like General Takima often beat their wives. She was convinced that if these people could beat their wives and be cruel to them, then they would certainly torture their enemies. This became evident when she saw scars on the body of the American soldier.
Question 3. Why had Hana to wash the wounded man herself?
Answer: Hana had ordered her maid Yumi to wash the American soldier. But Yumi bluntly refused to do so and said that she would have nothing to do with a white man. She even threatened to leave the job if forced to wash the American. So, Hana had to wash the wounded man herself.
Question 4. What help did Dr. Sadao seek from Hana while operating on the wounded man?
Answer: Dr. Sadao needed assistance of Hana while operating. The wound was so deep that the man was to be given anaesthesia. Dr. Sadao asked Hana to help him by giving anaesthesia to the man during the operation. Though Hana had never done this before, she managed to help Dr. Sadao in his operation.
Question 5. What made a cool surgeon like Dr. Sadao speak sharply to his wife and what was her reaction?
Answer: When Dr. Sadao asked his wife to help him in operating upon the man by giving him an anaesthetic, Hana turned pale out of nervousness. She had never seen an operation before. When Dr. Sadao saw her, he sharply said, ‘Don’t faint’. It was his dedication to his work as a surgeon. He wanted to save the life of the man and at this point of time the only concern in his mind was the success of the operation. Hana knew him well so did not react rather got ready to give the anaesthetic to the patient.
Question 6. In what context Hana remembers the cruel nature of General Takima?
Answer: While Hana was helping Dr. Sadao in operating upon the American, she noticed a red scar. She wondered if this man had been tortured by the Japanese army. She also remembered that people like General Takima beat their wives and were cruel to them. She was convinced that if these people could be cruel to their wives, they would certainly be cruel to their enemies.
Question 7. What solution did Hana offer to resolve Dr. Sadao’s predicament?
Answer: When Dr. Sadao and Hana saw the wounded American soldier, at first, they thought of throwing him back into the sea. But they could not do so. Finally, Hana resolved the problem by saying that they should carry him into the house. She suggested that the man should be treated and then given to the police.
Question 8. How did Hana react when she saw a messenger at the door in official uniform?
Answer: Hana got nervous and scared when she saw a messenger at the door in official uniform. Her hands went weak and she could not draw her breath. She thought that the servants must have told about the American POW and the man had come to arrest Dr. Sadao.
Question 9. Why did the General not order immediate arrest of Dr. Sadao who had sheltered a white man?
Answer: The General was very worried about his own health as he was suffering a lot. He desperately wanted Dr. Sadao beside him and trusted only him for his medical treatment. If Dr. Sadao was arrested, then there was no one else who could have operated upon him and saved his life. So, he did not order for the immediate arrest of Dr. Sadao.
Question 10. Why did Dr. Sadao treat the American soldier even though it was an unpatriotic act on his part?
Answer: Dr. Sadao was an expert surgeon. He was devoted to his work. When he saw the wounded soldier, his professional ethics compelled him to give the man medical treatment and save his life. Though he was a loyal and patriotic citizen, humanity, and compassion compelled Dr. Sadao to treat the American soldier.
Question 11. In what condition did Dr. Sadao find the American soldier at the seashore?
Answer: When Dr. Sadao saw the man at the seashore, he was unconscious and bleeding profusely. He was in wet rags, had yellow, long hair which were not cut for many weeks and sported a rough yellow beard.
Question 12. What role did the American professor play in bringing Hana and Dr. Sadao together?
Answer: It was at the American professor’s house that Dr. Sadao met Hana for the first time. The professor and his wife, in order to show their kindness to the foreign students, had invited them to their house. Though Dr. Sadao did not want to go there, he went and there he met Hana who was a first-year student.
Question 13. Who did Dr. Sadao think the survivor from the sea was when he first saw him?
Answer: When Dr. Sadao saw the man on the seashore, he thought him to be a fisherman from a nearby village who had been washed ashore from his boat. There were fishing villages, a mile or two away on either side.
Question 14. Why did Dr. Sadao seek Hana’s help to treat the US soldier?
Answer: The US Soldier was badly wounded. He had a deep wound which was to be operated upon immediately. Dr. Sadao needed some assistance at the time of operation. The most important task was to give anaesthesia to the patient at the time of operation so as to stop his movement. Dr. Sadao could not call anyone from outside as he had to keep the presence of US soldier in his house a secret. So, he asked Hana to help him during the operation and give anaesthesia to the patient.
Question 15. On the seventh day, after the American soldier was found by Dr. Sadao, two things happened. Why did Hana feel scared of the second?
Answer: The second thing that happened on the seventh day was that a messenger came in official uniform to call on Dr. Sadao. When Hana saw the official, she got scared. She thought that the servants might have complained to the police about the white man and so the official had come to arrest Dr. Sadao.
Question 16. Give two reasons why Dr. Sadao was not sent abroad with the Japanese soldiers.
Answer: The General was very ill, and he was being treated by Dr. Sadao. He needed an operation and for that he trusted only Dr. Sadao. Moreover, Dr. Sadao was doing a research to render ‘the wounds entirely clean’; that is why he was not sent abroad with the Japanese soldiers.
Question 17. Give a character sketch of Dr. Sadao’s father.
Answer: Dr. Sadao’s father was a traditional man. He was a serious and stern man and a very concerned father. He never played with Dr. Sadao but had been very keen in providing the best to him. He was mainly concerned about Dr. Sadao’s education, that is why he sent Dr. Sadao to America to study. But at the same time, he wanted him to come back and serve his people. He had great respect for his culture and traditions.
Question 18. How did the General offer to help Dr. Sadao in getting rid of the American?
Answer: The General offered to send his private assassins to help Dr. Sadao in getting rid of the American. These assassins would kill the white man noiselessly and also dispose of his body.
Question 19. What was the dilemma faced by Dr. Sadao and Hana after encountering the injured American soldier?
Answer: When Hana and Dr. Sadao saw the American soldier, they were in a dilemma. They were very loyal to their country and did not want to save the enemy. They wanted to hand him over to the police. But the man was wounded and in a pitiable state. Thus, the doctor inside Dr. Sadao urged him to save his life. Humanity rose above patriotism and they thought of first treating him and then handing him over to the police.
Question 20. Why does the General not want to be treated by doctors trained in Germany?
Answer: The General trusted Dr. Sadao deeply. He did not want to be operated upon by anyone other than Dr. Sadao. The General believed that Germans were ruthless and quite cruel. So, he was afraid of being operated upon by them. He believed that the Americans valued life and had sentiments attached to it. So, he wanted to be treated by Dr. Sadao who was trained at America.
Long Questions and Answers
Question 1. Why did Dr. Sadao Hoki go to America? Narrate his experience there.
Ans. Dr. Sadao Hoki was a skilled surgeon and scientist who was working on his discovery to ‘render the wounds clean’. Dr. Sadao was brought up by his father who was a staunch Japanese. His chief concern was Dr. Sadao’s education. He was sent to America at the age of twenty-two to learn all that could be learnt of surgery and medicine. He returned at the age of thirty and by that time had become famous not only as a surgeon but also as a scientist. Dr. Sadao had a tough time adjusting in America as he remembered that Americans were full of prejudice. It had been bitter for him to live there. He had an ignorant and dirty old woman as his landlady. The best thing in America had been to meet Hana, his wife, at one of his professor’s house who was a dull man and his wife, a silly talkative woman. Her experience in America had not been so good as he had to adjust a lot there, being a Japanese.
Question 2. What impression do you form about Dr. Sadao as a man and a surgeon on your reading the chapter ‘The Enemy’?
Answer: Dr. Sadao was a skilled surgeon and a famous scientist. His excellence in his professional field was evident from the fact that the General had full faith in him as regards his health. Dr. Sadao was devoted to his work and to the cause of the needy. When he saw the American soldier in a wounded condition, he was torn between the natural human instinct to save his life and treat him or as a patriot hand him over to the police.
Dr. Sadao saved the life of the man as per his professional ethics as he could not leave a person to die. It was his duty to save the life of a person as a doctor. At this point of time, when Dr. Sadao saw this dying man, his spirit of humanity surpassed everything else and so he saved one life irrespective of any colour, caste, or creed.
Question 3. Do you think Dr. Sadao’s final decision was the best possible one in the circumstances? Why/Why not? Explain with reference to the story, ‘The Enemy’.
Answer: Dr. Sadao saved the life of an American war prisoner as his professional and humanitarian duty. But he was very loyal to his country too. He told the General about the white man and the General promised to send his private assassins to kill him. But due to his self-absorption in his illness, the General forgot to send them. Thus, finally, Dr. Sadao decided to help the American soldier escape from there. He gave him a boat, flashlight, food, and water and asked him to go to a nearby unguarded island. He could look for a Korean boat and escape.
This could be the best solution in the prevailing circumstances. Dr. Sadao was in danger of being caught for harbouring a POW. In that case, he would be questioned for the reason to give this enemy a shelter in his house. So, in order to save his reputation and the life of the white man, there could be no better way than what Dr. Sadao had decided.
Question 4. Explain the reaction of the servants in Dr. Sadao’s house when he decided to give shelter to an enemy in the house.
Answer: The servants did not like the idea of giving shelter to an enemy in the house. Yumi, the governess of the children, stubbornly refused to wash the white man and threatened to leave the job if she was forced. When Dr. Sadao told his gardener about the wounded white man, he got upset and even frightened. He opposed Dr. Sadao for treating his enemy. In fact, all the servants in the house were critical of Dr. Sadao’s sheltering the enemy. They refused to help him. They were superstitious and fearful about the wrath of nature. They tried their level best to send the white man away. Finally, when Dr. Sadao did not listen to them and decided to give shelter to the white man in his house, they left the house.
Question 5. What conflicting ideas arise in Dr. Sadao’s mind after he has brought the wounded American soldier home? How is the conflict resolved?
Answer: When Dr. Sadao brought the wounded American soldier home, he was wondering whether what he was doing was right. The conflict was between his duty as a doctor and as a loyal citizen. As a doctor, it was his professional duty to help and save a dying man. But as a patriot and a loyal citizen of his country, he was supposed to hand over this man to the police as he was a POW, an enemy. The moment Dr. Sadao felt his wound and found that the man needed to be operated upon immediately, he forgot about everything else and his humanitarian virtues as a doctor made him operate upon the man and save his life.
Question 6. How did Dr. Sadao help the American POW to escape? What humanitarian values do you find in his act?
Answer: Dr. Sadao gave the American prisoner of war a boat, a flashlight, food, and water. He told him to go to a nearby unguarded island. He should stay there till a Korean boat passed by and then escape taking refuge in it. He dressed him in Japanese clothes and wrapped a black cloth on his head. He asked him to signal him two flashes at the same instant the sun drops over the horizon. He asked him to signal him once if he was all right till the time he escaped in Korean boat. He helped the American soldier to escape and save his life.
This act of Dr. Sadao was an act of humanism and compassion. As a doctor he had saved the life of a man without of any prejudice. Dr. Sadao had displayed himself as a man, full of compassion and humanity by this act.
Question 7. Dr. Sadao was a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon. How could he honour both the values?
Answer: Dr. Sadao was a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon. He honoured both the values excellently., it, was his duty, as a surgeon was to save the life of a man irrespective of caste, colour, or creed. For a doctor, his patient is beyond any prejudice. When Dr. Sadao saw the white man, he realised that the man would die if he was not immediately operated upon. So, he took the man to his house and treated him and saved his life. That was his duty as a dedicated surgeon.
Dr. Sadao was a loyal citizen of Japan and a true patriot. So, when he went to the General, he told him everything and sought his help. Dr. Sadao had no pity for the white man and considered him his enemy. The General assured to send his assassins but forgot. So, at the end, Dr. Sadao had to help the prisoner of war to escape from there.
Question 8. Good human values are far above any other value system. How did Dr. Sadao succeed as a doctor as well as a patriot?
Answer: Dr Sadao was an intelligent and a committed doctor, very adept in surgical skills and was an efficient scientist too. The story ‘The Enemy’ portrays Dr Sadao as true to his profession as it was his primary duty to help a wounded person without caring for his identity. When tom between loyalty towards his country and his duty as a doctor to save life, he chose humanity over patriotism. At the same time, he was not shown as lacking national loyalty. After saving the American soldier, he wrote a report about the whole matter but did not send it to the police chief, instead he disclosed everything boldly to the General. These are the instances in the story that project Dr Sadao’s humanitarian considerations, his surgical expertise and patriotism. He showed that good human values are far above any other value system.
Question 9. Dr. Sadao used his skills as a doctor not only to keep the prisoner alive but also to safeguard himself. Discuss.
Answer: Dr. Sadao was an expert surgeon. He saved the life of the enemy by operating upon him. But he was in danger of being caught as a traitor for sheltering an enemy. Very intelligently, he used his skills as a doctor to protect himself. He knew very well that the General relied on him for his health and would never let him suffer any harm. So, he told the General everything and got an assurance from him to get rid of the white man. But when the General forgot to do so, Dr. Sadao helped the white man to escape. Knowing that General would never take any action against him he told him that the. man had escaped. It was only due to his professional skills as a doctor that he could save himself.
Question 10. At what point did Dr. Sadao decide that it was time to get the enemy out of his house?
Answer: The General had assured Dr. Sadao of sending his assassins to kill the white man. Dr. Sadao waited for three nights for those assassins but they did not come. Every night was full of stress and anxiety for him. Hana was overburdened with the household work as all the servants had left. They were in constant danger of being caught for giving shelter to an American. At this point of time, Dr. Sadao decided that it was time to get the enemy out of his house. He decided to arrange for an escape of the white man in order to save himself. So, he arranged a boat, extra clothing, food, and water. He gave a flashlight to the American and asked him to go to a nearby unguarded island and from there wait for a Korean fishing boat and escape.
Question 11. Write an article on the topic ‘Humanity is the essence of our existence’.
Answer: We are human beings—the most superior species on the earth. Emotions such as empathy, humanity, compassion, love, and devotion make us superior. Every human heart breathes these emotions. Humanity is the most important trait in our personality. Humanity is above territories, caste, creed, and colour. Though we are divided into various countries, continents, states, etc. we must remember that these territories are constituted on the basis of ethnicity, formed by the people of some race and creed. All these are governed by the law, that we have made. But for nature, there is no such discrimination. For the sea, the sun, the rain, the air we all are the same. We all must remember the fact that it is the humanity the oneness with each other, which is the essence of our existence.
Question 12. Which, according to you, is higher — humanity or patriotism? Write a paragraph on the topic: Humanity vs Patriotism.
Humanity vs Patriotism
Humanity is above any boundary or prejudice, whereas patriotism is loyalty to one particular country or place where we live. Both are essential for human beings. We should be loyal and devoted to our country and full of patriotic fervour. Humanity is boundless. It is above any caste, creed, or race. It includes love for others. Humanity makes one compassionate, humble, and loving. Humanity is a virtue which unites the entire human race as one, whereas patriotism is comparatively narrow. It is a set of strengths focused on tending others. Thus, it is humanity, which acquires the highest place among all the virtues.